|Welcome, Guest [ Sign In ]|
|History of Punjab - Comprehensive text of Punjabi history||Theme:|
History of Punjab: Ghanznivide Dynasty
Alaptagin Alaptagin, a Turki slave, who governed the vast province of Khorasan, marched with a considerable army from Nishapur, the capital of Khorasan, to Ghizni, and after gaining several victories over the royal troops, assumed the insignia of sovereignty. Alaptagin frequently employed his armies for the reduction of the provinces of Multan and Lamghan, and thousands of inhabitans were carried away as slaves to Ghizni. Alaptagin reigned in peace for fifteen years, and on his death in 976, Sabuktagin, who had married his daughter, was installed on the throne of Ghizni.
Amir Nasir-Uddin Sabuktagin Sabuktagin, a slave of Turkish extraction, was educated and taught the use of arms. He resolved a war with idolators of India, who only known of worship of Brahma and Buddha. The Punjab at the time was ruled by Jaipal, whose territory extended from the Indus to Laghman, and from Kashmir to Multan. Sabuktagin, having marched eastwards with a considerable army in 977, reduced forts and caused mosques to be built. Jaipal organized an army to meet Sabuktagin, but the troops suffered heavily, and the Hindus, worsted at every point, fled to the banks of the Nilab. For the rest of his life, Sabuktagin enganged in military exploits and died in 997, in the fifty-sixth year of his age.
Sultan Mahmud, Ghaznavi Mahmud, at the age of thirty, asserted his right to the throne after the death of his father. Mahmud had long heard accounts of the wealth and splendour of the countries to the east, and wanted to turn arms against the idolaters and introduce, in its stead, the worship of the one God. Accordingly, in 1001 A.D., he marched from Ghazni to Peshawar, where the Hindus fought desperately, but were completely routed. The victory aquired Mahmud great fame and wealth, and he continued to Bhatinda, and reduced it. In 1005, Mahmud conquered Multan. His passion for propagating Islam and destroying Hindu idols, he laid siege the famous fort of Bhim, one of the holy shrines of the Punjab, and obtained gold, silver, jewels, pearls, corals, diamonds, and rubies. In 1011 A.D., Mahmud resolved on the conquest of Thanesar, which was held in great veneration by the Hindus, and captured the town, plundered the inhabitants, destroyed the great temples, and broke the idols to pieces. In 1017, Mahmud marched to Kanauj and Mathura, and destroyed these cities. After destroying all the temples, he erected a magnificent mosque of marble and granite, and established a grand university. Mahmud called Lahore, after his own name, Mahmudpur. Mahmud's last expedition to the Punjab was in 1027, and he reduced the Jat tribes living on the banks of the Indus. Mahmud died on April 29th, 1030 in the sixty-third year of his age. At the time of his death, Mahmud left an empire far exceeding that of any monarch then living.
Sultan Masud I Sultan Mahmud left two sons, Muhammad and Masud. Muhammad was deprived of his sight and was deposed by Masud, who became the king, or Sultan, of Ghazni. In 1033, Masud made an attack on the fort of Sursuti, in Kashmir. The entire garrison were put to the sword, except the women and children, who were carried away as slaves. He withdrew Lahore, and afterwards, was determined to stay in India. However, Muhammad had the army despose Masud, and eventually he was assasinated. Masud reigned nine years.
Sultan Maudud Maudud, hearing of his father's murder, immediately marched to Lahore to avenge his father's death. Muhammad was put to the sword, and at the spot, Maudud founded a town called Fathabad. In 1043, the Hindu rajas formed a confederation, but the Mahomedan garrison defended the town, and the Hindus were reduced. Maudud remained in peache for the rest of his life and died at Ghazni on December 24th, 1049, having reigned for nine years.
Sultan Abul Husein Abul Hasan, son of Emperor Masud I, was proclaimed emperor of Ghazni. After raising a large army, he reduced Multan and Sindh, and subdued the Afghans. Abul Husein, unable to restore order in the Punjab, was, towards the end of 1051, defeated and deposed by Abdul Rashid, a son of Sultan Mahmud, after reigning for two years.
Sultan Abdul Rashid Abdul Rashid reigned one year, at the end of which he was assassinated by Toghral in 1052.
Sultan Farakhzad Farakhzad, the son of Sultan Masud I, was raised to the throne of Ghazni. Indian possessions of the Ghaznivides remained in peace during the reign of the Sultan, which lasted about six years, at the end of which he died and was succeeded by his brother, Ibrahim.
Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Ibrahim marched to the Punjab, to conquer those parts of the countries not yet visited by the Mahomedan arms. In 1079, he captured Ajuddan, now called Pak Patan, in the Montgomery District. Her marched to Dera and the inhabitants surrendered. He tried to force the people to embrace Islam, but to no avail, and took the people away as slaves to Ghazni. Sultan Ibrahim died in 1098, having reigned for 42 years, and being blessed with 36 sons and 40 daughters by various wives. He was succeeded by Masud III.
Sultan Masud III Masud III possessed a maritial spirit and was distinguished for his love of justice and benevolence. During his reign, the army crossed the Ganges and carried the Mahomedan arms further, plundered many rich cities and temples, and returned to Lahore laden with enormous spoil. During his reign, Lahore became the real capital of the Ghaznivide dynasty. After reigning for sixteen years without domestic troubles or foreign wars, Masud died in 1118.
Sultan Arslan Arslan, son of the late king, ascended the throne, but after a couple of years, was expelled from Ghazni, took refuge with the Afghans, but was hotly pursued and met a violent death in 1121 at the hands of his brother Bahram.
Sultan Bahram Bahram assended the throne in 1121, and first thing he accomplished was to kill his brothers. In 1152, Bahram died on the way of a broken heart.
Sultan Khusrau Khusrau, son of Bahram, arrived safely at Lahore, where he was saluted king. He reigned in Lahore for seven years in peace, and died in 1160.
Sultan Khusrau Malik Khusrau Malik, son of the late Sultan Khusrau, ascended the throne and ruled with justice and moderation. He was destined to be the last of the Ghaznivide dynasty to rule in the Punjab. The kingdom of Ghazni was, during his time, invaded and conquered by Sultan Shahab-uddin Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori eventually marched into Punjab and overran provinces of Peshawar, Afghanistan, Multan, and the Indus. In 1180, he invested Lahore. Peace was concluded, but after a couple years, Muhammad Ghori took possession of Lahore, and the great Ghaznivide dynasty, which lasted from 962 to 1186, or for 224 years, ceased to exist.