History of Punjab: The Moghal Dynasty
At the age of fifteen, Baber had conquered Samarkand, the capital of his ancestors. He made his first advance
upon India in 1519 and reached Bhera in the Punjab. The fort of Birhala, with all its treasures, fell into the
hands of the victor. The later part of the year witnessed another invasion by Baber, this time of Lahore.
In 1520, he again marched into India and captured Sailkot and Syadpur, and massacred the inhabitants or
carried them to slavery. In 1524, Baber advanced to Punjab and defeated the defending army in a great
slaughter, and eventually marched into Lahore and ruled. Baber died in Agra on December 26th, 1530, having
reigned thirty-eight years.
Humayun, who succeeded his father Baber, was an amiable and accomplished person. He made the science of
astronomy his favorite object of study, and wrote works on nature. Humayun waged wars on the Hindu kings of
Bundelkhand, reduced Chena, and marched against Gujrat. In 1540, the emperor was discomfited by Sher Khan
and was obliged to abandon his capital. He retreated to Lahore, and eventually fled to the desert, where his
wife gave birth to Prince Akbar. Humayun eventually retreated to Sistan and gave up the idea of re-establishing
the Moghal empire in India.