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Key to Pronunciation Symbols

Gurm
Char

Symbols
used in
romanization

Examples of Pronunciation

a,A,e

a

 abut, ago, abroad, achieve, adopt, agree, alone, banana

s

s

 source, less, simple, some

h

h

 hat, head, hand, happy

k

k

 kin, cook, ache, kick, cat

K

kh

German ich, Buch (deep palatal sound of k) Khaki (a yellowish color), Khomeni (Ayatula)

g

g

 go, big, gift, gag, game

G

gh

Deep palatal sound of ‘g’ something like in ghost

|

ny

Must be learnt.

c

ch

 chin, nature, church

C

chh

Similar to sh in shin, must be learnt

j

j

 job, gem, edge, join, judge

J

jh

Deep labial sound of ‘j’

\

nj

Must be learnt.

t

t

 tie, attack, tin, tap,

T

th

 thug,

f

d

 did, adder, deed, dam, double,

F

dh

Deep palatal sound of ‘d’

x

n

Must be learnt.

q

t

Must be learnt.

Q

th

 thin, thick, three, ether,

d

d

 the, then, either, this, there

D

Dh

Deep labial sound of 'the'

n

n

 no, own, sudden, nib,

p

p

 pepper, lip, pit, paper

P

f

 fifty, cuff, phase, rough, fit, foot, fur

b

b

 baby, rib, bib, button,

B

bh

Deep palatal sound of ‘b’

m

m

 mum, murmur, dim, nymph

X

y

 yard, young, union

r

r

 red, car, rarity, rose

l

l

 lily, pool, lid, needle, lamb

v

v

 vivid, give, live

V

rh

Deep palatal sound of ‘r’ (must be learnt)

S

sh

 shy, mission, machine, special

^

kh

Deep palatal sound of ‘kh’

Z

g

Deep palatal sound of ‘g’

z

z

 zone, raise, zebra, xylem

&

f

Deep labial sound of ‘f’

L

l

Deep palatal sound of ‘l’

  H

H

Same as ‘h’ but of short duration

  @

H

Same as ‘h’ but of short duration

  ç

ch

Same as ‘ch’ but of short duration

  †

t

Same as ‘t’ but of short duration

  œ

t

Same as ‘t’ but of short duration

  ˜

n

Same as ‘n’ but of short duration

  ΄

y

Same as ‘y’ but of short duration

  R

r

Same as ‘r’ but of short duration

  Í

v

Same as ‘v’ but of short duration

w

aa

bother, cot, father, cart, palm

W

aaN

This adds nasal tone to ‘aa’

i

tip, banish, active, pit, it, give

 I

ee

nosebleed, bee, feed, beat,

  u

u

bull, pull, full, cure hood, book

  U

oo

cool, pool, boot, tool, rule

  y

ay

ray, say, day, hay, bay

  Y

ai

mat, map, bad, lad, glad, rat, bat,

  o

o

bone, know, toe, note, go

  O

ou

 out, pound, now, loud

N

N

indicates that a preceding vowel or diphthong is pronounced with the nasal passages open, as in French un bon vln blanc

  M

N

indicates that a preceding vowel or diphthong is pronounced with the nasal passages open, as in French un bon vln blanc

E

o

 oak, oath, oatmeal,


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Translation Text by Manmohan Singh              Web Site Designer: Khushdev K. Thind